Governance, Risk, and Compliance, almost always referred to as GRC, is the latest addition to the parade of three-letter acronyms that are used to describe the processes and software that run the business world. The goal of GRC is to help a company efficiently put policies and controls in place to address all its compliance obligations while at the same time gathering information that helps proactively run the business. Done properly, GRC creates a central nervous system that helps you manage your business more effectively. You also derive a competitive advantage from understanding risks and choosing opportunities wisely. In other words, GRC helps you make sure that you do things the right way: It keeps track of what you are doing and raises an alert when things start to go off track or when risks appear.
GRC is not just about complying with requirements for one quarter or one year. Rather, those who are serious about GRC, meaning just about everyone these days, seek to create a system and culture so that compliance with external regulations, enforcement of internal policies, and risk management are automated as much as possible and can evolve in an orderly fashion as business and compliance needs change. That’s why some would say that the C in GRC should stand for controls: controls that help make the process of compliance orderly and make process monitoring and improvement easier.
Some parts of the domain of GRC — measures to prevent financial fraud, for example — are as old as business itself. Making sure that money isn’t leaking out of a company and ensuring that financial reports are accurate have always been key goals in most businesses—only recently have they attained new urgency.
Other parts of GRC related to trade compliance, risk management, and environmental, health, and safety regulations are somewhat newer activities that have become more important because of globalization, security concerns, and increased need to find and mitigate risks. For example, to ship goods overseas, you must know that the recipient is not on a list of prohibited companies. These lists change daily. Growing concern about global warming and other pressures to reduce environmental impact and use energy efficiently have increased regulations that demand reporting, tracking, and other forms of sociopolitical compliance. Companies are also interested in sustainability reporting, measuring areas such as diversity in the workplace, the number of employees who volunteer, and environmental efforts, so that companies can provide data about corporate social responsibility. Financial markets punish companies that report unexpected bad news due to poor risk management.
One simple goal of GRC is to keep the CFO out of jail, but that description is too narrow to capture all of the activity that falls under the umbrella of GRC. (It’s also an exaggeration; the truth is that simple noncompliance is more likely to result in big fines rather than a long trip to the big house. But, that said, most executives prefer to leave no stone unturned rather than risk breaking rocks in the hot sun.) Most companies now face demands from regulators, shareholders, and other stakeholders. Financial regulations like Sarbanes-Oxley (SOX) in the United States and similar laws around the world mean that senior executives could face criminal penalties if financial reports have material errors. All of this means a lot more testing and checking, which is costly without some form of automation.