What is Document in SAP?

SAP is based on the ‘document principle’ meaning that a document is created out of every business transaction in the system. The Document is the result of a posting in accounting in SAP, and is the connecting link between various business operations. There are two types of documents:

  1. Original Documents: these documents relate to the origin of business transactions such as invoices, receipts, statement of accounts from bank, etc.
  2. Processing Documents: These include ‘accounting documents’ generated from postings in the system, ‘reference documents,’ ‘sample documents,’ etc. The processing documents other than the accounting ones are also known as ‘special documents’ and they aid in the simplification of document entry in the system.

Every document consists of:

  • A Document Header
  • Two or more Line Items

Before attempting to enter a document, call up the relevant document entry function as the system provides a variety of ready-made document entry templates suited to different transactions such as regular GL entry, customer invoice posting, etc. The details entered in a document can be simulated and displayed before the document is actually posted in the system. You may also choose to ‘park’ the document and post it later.

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